Tuesday, May 26, 2020

After the Fact Bottom Rail on Top - 1721 Words

AAfter The Fact: The View From the Bottom Rail Chris Bean Bl: A 5/29/12 Mr. Penza Summary of Chapter: With the sound of cannons and gunshots firing in the air, slaves in the south knew that freedom was coming to a nation of four million slaves. Union soldiers would be portrayed as bad foreigners from their masters, with, â€Å" long horns on their heads, and tushes in their mouths, and eyes sticking out like a cow.† (Page 171) Some slaves were overjoyed with rumors of emancipation and leaving their plantations to head north, but many slaves sided with their masters because they were afraid of what might happen later on. To newly freed blacks it was as if the world was turned upside down. One slave who was surprised and delighted to find his†¦show more content†¦The diversity in the two races made it virtually impossible for blacks and whites to deal with one another candidly. In the half century following Reconstruction, interest in preserving black history languished. Most historians writing about Reconstruction ignored the freedpeople and their perspective in general. Not until the twentieth century were systematic efforts made to question blacks about past experiences. Interest in the African American history arose sometime in the 1920’s, spurred by black scholars. But the most influential factor that made it hard to orally gather information from former slaves was the Depression. One of the many agencies chartered by Roosevelt administration was the Federal Writer’s Project or (FWP). It was a success in gathering more than 2,300 interviews, and it was published in 1941. Benjamin Botkin, the series’ original editor recognized the importance of the slaves interviews, â€Å"These life stories, taken down as far as possible in the narrators words, constitute an invaluable body of unconscious evidence or indirect source material. For the first time, slaves have been permitted to tell their own story, in their own way.† (Page 180) The chapter continues on to an interview on July 6’Th of Susan Hamlin, an ex-slave in South Carolina. She talks about the evil things that she witnessed and had done to her and was in her late nineties when recalling her past life as a slave. The second story of anShow MoreRelated The View from the Bottom Rail Essay1410 Words   |  6 PagesThe View from the Bottom Rail The Lewinsky Scandal†¦ A perfect example as to why we cannot accept everything at face value before carefully examining it first. Everyone thought President Clinton was behaving himself in the White House, but, as it turns out, he was most definitely not. This can be the same for history. We must carefully consider different aspects of articles so that we do no make the mistake of believing everything we read. In order to fully understand an article, we must understandRead MoreThe Acceleration of a Freely Falling Body Essay1095 Words   |  5 PagesThe Acceleration of a Freely Falling Body To study the motion of a freely falling body, an object is allowed to fall and its position after successive equal time intervals is recorded on wax-coated paper by means of electric sparks. From these data, graphs of distance vs. time and velocity vs. time are plotted. The acceleration due to gravity is found by determining the slope of the velocity vs. time graph. Theory In one dimension, an objects average velocityRead MoreRobert Jewell Deposition Summary And Analysis2566 Words   |  11 PagesMartin is the regional manager and branch manager of the Houston operation. Wayne Bowling is the branch manager of the Conroe branch and Mr. Jewell’s boss. The Conroe branch provided the slide rail system provided to Elliott Construction. He was not part of the thought process to determine which slide rail process should be used. Mr. Jewell received trench safety training at United Rentals twice and at NTS once, in 2001 and 2003 at United Rentals and NTS in 2010. The classes he took were basicRead MoreExpansion and Contraction of Matter2240 Words   |  9 Pagesexceptions, when any matter is heated, it will expand.   When it   is cooled, it will contract.  Ã‚   Observing a Gas Expand When Heated    Procedure:  Ã‚   Place the neck of the balloon over the mouth of the bottle.   Put about 6 cm (2 in) of water in the bottom of the pot and place the bottle and balloon in the pot.   Heat the water slowly over the stove. You do not need to heat the water to boiling.   What happens to the balloon? Remove the bottle and allow it to cool.   What happens to the balloon now? Read MoreScience in the Media835 Words   |  3 Pagesup paper bags, a banana peel, and a partially filled beer can. Doc then inserts the trash that he finds into the top of the engine component of his flying car. Immediately after doing so, they hover off into the future. This particular scene in Back to the future basically communicates that a vehicle such as Docs car, can use organic waste as fuel and that it can do so immediately after placing trash into its engine component. While it would be extremely convenient and cost effective for societyRead MoreUnit 29 P21414 Words   |  6 Pagesdelivering, storing and selling goods, so that they can be used by customers. (Source- Intermediate Retail and Distribution, Delivering is about what types of transport which are used to carrying and delivering goods, the types of transport is going to be Rail, Road, Air, Water for example rivers, ocean cargo and canals and People. Storing is about where the goods are going to come from and where they are going to be stored. Selling is going to be where you are going to sell the goods Distribution Channel Read MoreThe Color of Water and Malcolm X1155 Words   |  5 PagesAbraham Maslow’s theory of â€Å"Hierarchy of Needs† consists of 5 things humans need. From top to bottom, top being the more complex needs and the bottom the more basic needs is; Self-Actualization, esteem, love/belonging, safety, and physiological. Self-actualization is the level of need that pertains to what a person’s full potential is and realizing that potential. It is broken up as morality, spontaneity, and lack of prejudice. Based on the two texts I read, The Color of Water by James McBride andRead MoreGlobal Nature And Systemic Impact On The Firm s Financial Performance968 Words   |  4 PagesDue to its global nature and systemic impact on the firm’s financial performance, the supply chain arguably faces more risk than other areas of the company. Risk is a fact of life for any supply chain, whether it’s dealing with quality and safety challenges, sup ply shortages, legal issues, security problems, regulatory and environmental compliance, weather and natural disasters, or terrorism. There’s always some element of risk. Companies with global supply chains face additional risks, includingRead MoreFlight Centre1695 Words   |  7 Pagesreport contains analysis on Flight Centre’s customer experience survey conducted in Australia. The report has been divided into three main sections. The first section lists the important facts, findings from the case study. This is further elaborated to list key challenges faced by Flight Centre. Based on the facts and key challenges alternative solutions have been provided in the second section. Final section of the report mentions the recommendations and implementations for the company to improveRead MoreBombardier Transportation and the Adtranz Acquisition2217 Words   |  9 Pagestransportation and the Adtranz Acquisition 1. What is this case about (250 words)? 2. What are the Key Success Factors of the railway equipment industry ? 3. Draw a schematic representation of Bombardier’s business portfolio before and after the Adtranz acquisition. How critical is the European railway market for Bombardier? (From a business and a corporate level perspective). 4. Is Adtranz an attractive acquisition target for Bombardier? What are the arguments for and against?

Friday, May 15, 2020

William Shakespeare s Oedipus The King - 909 Words

English Assignment – Oedipus The King In the story, Oedipus The King, written by Sophocles, two important aspects of Oedipus’ character that lead to his demise are his determination to find the truth of his origin, as well as his anger. These are flaws that negatively affect the tragic outcome at the end of the plot. Oedipus first shows signs of anger when he does not want to hear what Tiresias has to say about the murderer of Laius, even after the ruler begs for the truth. Oedipus yells, Enough! I won’t listen to this sort of talk from you. Damn you! My curse on you! Get out of here, quickly. Away from this house, back to where you came from! (25) He goes into a fit of rage when Tiresias explains, in the form of riddles, the evils that the king is living with. The prophet mentions a curse, in which he hints that Oedipus marries his mother and kills his father. Tiresias also reveals that the king is the murderer of Laius. The ruler of Thebes believes that Creon set Tiresias up to convey this accusation, sta ting: â€Å"Was it Creon, or you, that invented this story?† (23) Because of his short-temper, without even considering the validity of Tiresias’ statement, Oedipus becomes irate and is unable to control his emotions, shouting: â€Å"(†¦.) I tell you, you will pay in tears for this witch-hunting—you and Creon, the man that organized this conspiracy!† (24) It is understandable that anyone would be upset and shocked after hearing such shocking claims. Yet, as a ruler of Thebes,Show MoreRelatedExploration Of William Shakespeare s Oedipus The King 1810 Words   |  8 PagesExploration of Intellect in Oedipus the King Joshua Small English Composition II Section 201 Professor Kerwan 24 October 2015 Joshua Small Professor Kerwan English Composition II 24 October 2015 Exploration of Intellect in â€Å"Oedipus the King† Oedipus the King by Sophocles has been examined countless times over the years. It is not merely a story about a tragic prophecy fulfilled, or about a son murdering his father then marrying his mother. Oedipus the King has been analyzed many timesRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Sophocles Oedipus998 Words   |  4 PagesShakespeare, one of the greatest playwrights of the Renaissance era, could have changed Ancient Greek Theatre plays tremendously as his approach was drastically different than that of Greek playwrights. In Oedipus by Sophocles, a curse has been set on the people of Thebes for the previous murderer of their former king Laius. King Oedipus as a child was given a prophecy that he would kill his father and marry his mother and that indeed has occurred as it is proven by witnesses that he was the murdererRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Hamlet 1366 Words   |  6 PagesLiterary Analysis Psychological State of the Characters in Hamlet The English Play writer, William Shakespeare had written many well-known pieces of work including Hamlet. Hamlet is known to be one of his most popular works. Hamlet was written in the late 16th Century about the Prince of Denmark. The original title of the work was The Tragedy of Hamlet, now it is referred to as just Hamlet. In Hamlet, William Shakespeare uses the mental state of his characters to prove that not all characters in books haveRead More Hamlets Oedipus Complex Essays1190 Words   |  5 Pageswho embody the elements of the classic Oedipus Complex, that of a son with an undue and unhealthy attachment to his mother. D.H Lawrenceamp;#8217;s Sons and Lovers, along with other early modernist works, shows how a sonamp;#8217;s bond to his mother can lead to that characteramp;#8217;s major downfall. Even earlier than works of the late 19th Century does the Oedipus Complex appear, in this case, William Shakespeareamp;#8217;s Hamlet. Shakespeareamp;#8217;s play about the Prince o f Denmark showsRead More William Shakespeares Hamlet and Sophocles Oedipus the King1362 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Shakespeares Hamlet and Sophocles Oedipus the King   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Though Shakespeares’ Hamlet and Sophocles’ Oedipus the King were written in two different eras, echoes of the latter can be found in the former. The common theme of Hamlet and Oedipus the King is regicide. Also, like in Oedipus the King, there is a direct relationship between the state of the state and the state of their kings. Furthermore, there is also a relationship between Oedipus’ armed entrance into the bedroom in whichRead MoreThe Oedipus Complex ( Oedipus )1666 Words   |  7 Pageswith the Oedipus complex, which is when a boy has an attachment to the mother, which in turns results in aggressive and envious feelings toward the father and these feelings are largely repressed. The Oedipus complex comes from Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus but has largely been associated with Hamlet as well, since he and his mother Gertrude, have an extremely complicated relationship (Oedipus Complex). Hamlet is the predecessor of modern psychological thought because Freud came after Shakespeare. In theRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Hamlet 1077 Words   |  5 PagesPsychology is a combination of studies regarding human behavior and mental characteristics observed within all individuals. Author’s such as William Shakespeare have 4dictated their works in a way that allows for them to integrate common occurrences of new psychological findings into a text, giving them an opportunity to sculpt characters that differentiate themselves from one another. Psychoanalytical Criticism is the application of psychological studies incorporated into the findings of contemporaryRead MoreThe Tragic Hero Of Shakespeare s Hamlet 1599 Words   |  7 Pageslife and it has made me a different person and makes me want to do better in life each day. I believe that Hamlet was the best to achieve being a Tragic Hero than Oedipus did; because of the way he handled his tragedy. William Shakespeare’s play â€Å"Hamlet† was a very good poem. I, personally, love reading play and poems from Shakespeare. I have always wanted to read Hamlet and after reading it through this class I absolutely loved it. It was a very impressive poem, by the way it was written and setRead More Hamlet and the Oedipus Complex Essay1218 Words   |  5 PagesHamlet and the Oedipus Complex Hamlet is the typical kind of son almost every father and mother would want: intelligent, loving, caring, strong and loyal. Yet, some scholars believe that he is just another emotional character, defying our eyes to think that his acts are innocent, when his real purpose is to take his mother for himself. This gives scholars, like Ernest Jones, the impression that Hamlet’s actions were encouraged by an Oedipus complex, characterized by feelings of intenseRead MoreThe Origins Of Drama And Theatre2001 Words   |  9 Pages(Powell 68). Tragedy is, according to Aristotle, â€Å"an imitation of an action that is admirable† (10). Tragedy therefore deals with more than the common folk, and deals with more than common occurrences. It is more likely to deal with the fate of great kings, and heroes (Simpson). The audience for Greek tragedies were most likely middle class, meaning that they may have been perfectly fine watching a play about hero’s of greater import ance, instead of commoners of lesser importance. Aristotle goes into

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Developement of Civilization Essay - 1359 Words

The Developement of Civilization According to Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, civilization is â€Å"a relatively high level of cultural and technological development, specifically the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained†. Other sources trace the meaning of civilization to political, economic, military and social structures as well as the heightened intellectual and artistic aspects of life (Spielvogel,xxxi). Civilization developed as the crises of everyday life necessitated change. As history progresses, we study our past in search of guidance and other crucial information to help us along the way. The study of civilization also plays as an agent to defer us from†¦show more content†¦It is taken from the fossils of these people that language may well have began in this form of human (Lerner,8). They had enlarged cavities in the front of the neck. Soon different dialects would run rampant. These people, the Neanderthals , were also nomadic. They followed the herds along their migratory patterns and gathered other sustenance consisting mostly of plants and their roots along the way. It is believed that approximately 400,000 years ago, Homo erectus learned to use fire (Lerner,9). They also began to travel farther distances, for the earliest evidence of the wheel used in travel was found to be in 35,000 BCE (Calder,54). There is conflicting information as to when the Homo erectus began evolving into the Homo sapien. Some say it was in 28,000 BCE (Lerner,9), others say it was between 18,000 and 13,000 BCE (Spielvogel,3). Facts would point to the earlier years, where the Sumerian city-states, Egyptian Civilization (especially the Old Kingdom), and cuneiform began to emerge. â€Å"Groups of people advanced beyond their old hunting grounds at a rate of only two or three miles per generation (Spielvogel,3).† They began making waterproof shelters of their own. With this new advance in additio n to the discovery and use of fire, man was able to move to climates other than the reasonably comfortable settlements ofShow MoreRelatedWhat Is Anthropology? Essay1245 Words   |  5 Pages For the past century, Anthropology has come to be known as a study of an infinite curiosity about humans. Not only concerned with an interest in human beings and their developements, Anthropology is much more broad in concept of trying to understand the relationships between human beings and all possible questions about them. Anthropology is trying to understand all aspects of human beings through the broad discovery, study, interpretation and inference of past and present cultural characteristicsRead MorePersuasive Essay On Space Exploration1554 Words   |  7 Pagesdont want to get into that debate. However I will point out that the next biggest spender on the military is China at 160 billion, so do what you want with that infomation. My main point is this; I believe that NASA is our best branch of reasearch developement, and why we should hold this line of reasearch in the upmost importance. How far can the human species go in terms of space exploration. I fully believe that whe n we start investing our time into space exploration we will begin the next big stepRead MoreA History of World in Six Glasses Essay2701 Words   |  11 Pagesthink beer was in the growth and diffusion of the earliest civilizations? Would the earliest civilizations of SW Asia and Egypt have been as prosperous without the discovery of beer? I think beer was an important factor in the growth and diffusion of the earliest civilizations. This is because beer led to the development of an agricultural-based society. Without the discovery of beer, who knows how long it would have taken early civilizations in the Paleolithic era realized that farming would be betterRead MoreEssay on Change Analysis Chart Postclassical (600-1450 C.E.)8730 Words   |  35 Pageswidespread. * Traders were more likely to travel the entire length of the silk roads due to increased safety and technology. | * Increased agricultural production due to developing technologies led to economic development. Further econnimic developements and increased urbanization led to increased trade. The major east-west trade routes, like the silk roads or the Indian Ocean routes, also developed more during this time, which led to increased international contact and safer trade routes. AllRead MoreSuccess Rates of the Re-establishment of the Fynbos in the Tokai Forest2104 Words   |  9 PagesTokai plantation were commercial pine has been cut in the past 2-4 years. †¢ To see whether different regions are affected due to different external factors, such as animal and human population. †¢ Information gathered will need to determine the developement of the indigenous Cape Flat Sand Fynbos varying between the past 2-4 years the commercial pines were cut. †¢ To determine the number of Cape Flats Sand Fynbos vegetation on the mountain, in the re-establishing forest sections. †¢ Determining theRead MoreRole Of Laparoscopic, Robotic Assisted And Open Surgery Essay3228 Words   |  13 Pagesmanagement of stones. Introduction: Humans are suffering from the urolithiasis from time before the recorded history. Urolithiasis have been found in the Egyptian mummy dating 4800BC(1).Surgery for urolithiasis was done in ancient Greek and Roman civilizations but these surgeries were mainly focused as treatment for complications of stone diseases like pyonephrosis or fistulae. Ingalls performed first elective nephrolithotomy in 1872 in United States of America and Morris performed first elective nephrolithotomyRead MoreLibrary Management204752 Words   |  820 Pagesthe theories that are the essence of management today. Although management as a formal field of study is less than 150 years old, there was a need for managing long before its principles were studied and codified. From the time of the earliest civilizations, management techniques were being employed widely. ManageMent in ancient History As early as 3000 b.c.e., the Sumerians kept records on clay tablets; many of those records applied to the management practices of the priests of Ur. Early Babylonia

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Animal Behavior free essay sample

Conflict is very common in the animal kingdom. In many cases conflict between animals is resolved by actual fighting, but there are also many examples of fighting, some of which end up in the death of the opponent. From observations of animal conflict it is clear that some circumstances are more conductive to fighting than others. Animals do not always fight when given the opportunity and some individuals vary in the readiness with which they resort to fighting. Such differences in agonistic behavior often reflect an animal? chance of winning or getting injured and the importance of the issue concerned. The benefits of fighting are quite obvious in many cases. The winner can gain exclusive use of a resource such as a food source or may obtain exclusive mating rights whereas losers gain either nothing or only partial access. The more aggressive an animal is, the more benefits it is likely to gain, but if an animal is too aggressive it might face unacceptably high costs, such as seriou s injury, so the animal must weigh up the relative costs and benefits of its action and choose an optimum level of aggression. We will write a custom essay sample on Animal Behavior or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page If the costs are too high, and the benefits are too low; avoiding a fight may be preferable to competing. In other cases it may be worth fighting vigorously for a valuable resource. I think that any race, species, or other group of animals feels morally free to torture, injure, psychologically brutalize, capture, destroy, genocide, and generally toy with the lives of less important species while still feeling morally superior by virtue of the fact that they would never do such horrible things to their own kind. Particularly, animals would never kill anyone of their own kind, and look down on other races, who prove their barbarity through killing each other. Animals dont necessarily think theyre morally superior because they dont kill each other. They just think theyre better, and the fact that they dont kill each other is indirect proof of that. If they do start killing each other, dont expect them to suddenly realize theyre no better. Theyve probably got tons more reasons why theyre better, all of them as irrational as that one.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Analytical Procedures Essays

Analytical Procedures Essays Analytical Procedures Essay Analytical Procedures Essay Essay Topic: Analytical The objective of analytical procedures used in the overall review stage of the audit is to assist the auditor in assessing the conclusions reached and in the evaluation of the overall financial statement presentation. A wide variety of analytical procedures may be useful for this purpose. The overall review would generally include reading the financial statements and notes and considering (a) the adequacy of evidence gathered in response to unusual or unexpected balances identified in planning the audit or in the course of the audit and (b) unusual or unexpected balances or relationships that were not previously identified. Results of an overall review may indicate that additional evidence may be needed. [Paragraph renumbered by the issuance of Statement on Auditing Standards No. 96, January 2002. ] (AU Section 329 Analytical Procedures, 2002) The debt to equity ratio is computed by dividing total liabilities by total stockholder’s equity. The ratio measures how the company is leveraging its debt against the capital employed by its owners. If l liabilities exceed the net worth then in that case the creditors have more stake than the shareholders. The gross margin on net sales is computed by dividing gross profit by net sales. The gross profit margin is a measure of the gross profit earned on sales. The gross profit margin considers the firms cost of goods sold, but does not include other costs. By analyzing changes in this figure, you can identify whether it is necessary to examine company policies relating to credit extension, markups (or markdowns, purchasing, or general merchandising (where applicable). This percentage rate can and will vary greatly from business to business, even those within the same industry. Sales, location, size of operations, and intensity of competition are all factors that can affect the gross profit rate. The current ratio is computed by dividing current assets by current liabilities. The ratio is regarded as a test of liquidity for a company. It expresses the working capital relationship of current assets available to meet the company’s current obligations. Debt to Equity RatioIndustry Average total liabilities= $ 7,589,482. 00 = $ 0. 80 2. 58 total stockholders equity $ 9,520,580. 00 Gross Margin on Net Sales Gross Profit= $ 7,287,064. 00 = $ 0. 8 23. 11% Net Sales $ 26,420,363. 00 Current Ratio Current Assets= $ 16,513,545. 00 = $ 2. 18 1. 21 Current Debt $ 7,589,482. 00 Conclusion: Based on the end of the audit analysis, I believe this business will continue in business. The debt to equity ratio tells me the business isn’t heavily financed by shareholders’. For every dollar of OceanView Marine Company owned by shareholders, OceanView owes $0 . 80 to creditors. The ratio is low compared to the industry average and may indicate the company is not taking advantage of other opportunities that financial leverage may bring. The gross margin on net sales ratio is high compared to the industry average. This ratio reveals how much a company earns taking into consideration the costs that it incurs for producing its products and or services. Higher ratios indicate the company may have more money left over to spend on other business operations. The current ratio is higher than the industry average as well. This is also good because the ratio is mainly used to give an idea of the company’s ability to pay back short-term liabilities with its short-term assets. ? Cash Fraud Article: Phoney MI5 stole ? 4,000 from girlfriend An assistant of an Oxford whisky shop conned his girlfriend out of â‚ ¬14,000 ($20,000) by pretending to be an undercover secret service agent spying on dangerous crimes. Wayne Gouveia convinced his 21 year old girlfriend Leanne McCarthy that he was a MI5 agent sent to protect her. Leanne worked in a nearby jewelry store, Rowell Jewelry in Turl Street, Oxford. Wayne and Leanne began dating in 2007. Wayne showered her with expensive gifts and the couple moved in together. He claimed he could afford so many presents because he also worked as an undercover policeman. Wayne told her his assignment was to protect her during a robbery that her boss was planning to collect insurance payout. He also told her that her boss was trying to poison her with anthrax powder as part of the scheme. He gained her trust by producing a false Official Secrets Act for her to sign. He told her his boss wanted to recruit her as a spy and he took her on fictional security service stake outs. She in turned allowed him to intercept all her mail, including bank cards and PINs because she believed it was laced with anthrax. Wayne was able to scam her out of her savings and financial details to defraud her of ? 14,000. He admitted to three charges of fraud by false representation at Oxford Crown Court. He was convicted March 2009 to an eighteen month sentence. He was 25 at the time of sentencing. Bibliography AU Section 329 Analytical Procedures. (2002). Retrieved November 8, 2010, from Public Company Accounting Oversight Board: http://pcaobus. org/Standards/Auditing/Pages/AU329. aspx#ps-pcaob_5d327f5c-52fb-433d-80d4-8f51565bbfe7 Bonnett, R. (2009, April 10). Fake Spies The Conmen Who didnt Work For MI5. Retrieved December 02, 2010, from Robert Bonetts Blog: http://robertbonnett. com/2009/04/10/the-fake-mi5-spies/ Kelly, T. (2009, February 19). Phoney MI5 spy stole 14000 pounds from girlfriend. Retrieved December 2010, 2010, from Mail Online: dailymail. co. uk/news/article-1148759/Phoney-MI5-spy-stole-14-000-girlfriend. html Three of The Worst Fraud Cases of 2009. (2010, February 23). Retrieved December 02, 2010, from Articlebase: articlesbase. com/print/1896090

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Circadian rhythm essay Essay Example

Circadian rhythm essay Essay Example Circadian rhythm essay Paper Circadian rhythm essay Paper Introduction Circadian is a combination of two Latin words, â€Å"circa† that means about and â€Å"dia† that means day. The literal meaning of circadian is â€Å"about a day.† Simply put then, Circadian Rhythm is the regular flow of activity within a day. Human Circadian Rhythms are biological activities that follow a 24-hour cycle regulated by the human â€Å"biological clock† (Klein, et al., 2007). This â€Å"biological clock† tells the body how to respond accurately to the changing settings in the environment. One of the most evident bodily functions related to the Circadian Rhythm is sleep. Sleep helps the body â€Å"re-set† at least every 24 hours. It is controlled by external cues, particularly the rising and setting of the sun. This is called the sleep-wake pattern. It relies on light (Silva, Albuquerque and Araujo, 2005) to indicate time. The rising and setting of the sun is the most powerful control of the rhythms. This is the reason why humans are normally asleep at night and awake in the day. The Circadian Rhythm has both endogenous and exogenous components (Thomas, 2003). The endogenous component is the human internal clock that is controlled by the brain’s hypothalamus. It sets cues as to when a certain body function is expected to run. On the other hand, the exogenous component comprises external cues from the environment. These external cues act as stimuli to body functions. Circadian Rhythms need both components to work. Regulated temperature is an example of the endogenous and exogenous components working together. The onset of the Circadian Rhythms is believed to be during the fist 6 months of life (Pobojewski, 2007). During this time the human body already adapts to certain cycles and set of normal activities. The body learns periods of sleeping, eating, excreting and maintaining of vital signs. Discrepancies in these cycles usually create an unwanted response. It is safe to assume that once the human body learns such cycles, it would be very difficult to break them. The Human Circadian Rhythm is as individual as humans themselves. No two Circadian Rhythm patterns are alike. Each is developed and enhanced according to the individual’s set of cues, both endogenous and exogenous. There are some instances when an individual has to ignore the Circadian Rhythm. This is possible only for a short period of time. Many diagnosed illnesses are often related to prolonged disruption of the Circadian Rhythm.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Arguably the most common characteristic present among things with life, the Circadian Rhythm, is as prominent in animals as it is in human beings. The storing of nuts by a squirrel, the spinning of webs by a spider, the burying of eggs in the beach by a turtle, the feeling of hunger during lunch by a human being are all controlled by the Circadian Rhythms. In fact, animals rely heavily on their own â€Å"biological clocks† to complete many of their regular activities (Labak, 2005).   Animals are driven by their â€Å"biological clocks† to mating so that they can give birth during the mild seasons, when food is abundant. The light/dark pattern is important to animals. Animals that rely on vision to forage for food are most active in the day. On the other hand, those that are capable of activity with minimal dependence to sight are usually active at night. Animals take their cues for migration and hibernation from the length of days that indicate the turn of seasons. What humans normally refer to as instincts in animals are actually Circadian Rhythms in action. They are the driving force to all animal activities. A number of studies have been conducted that correlates body functions with the Circadian Rhythm. Studies have been conducted to assess the effects of the rhythms to various mental and psychological disorders. It has also been scrutinized against many physiological illnesses, more specifically when the rhythms are disrupted. However in more recent times, the Circadian Rhythm has been studied for the purpose of performance enhancement. In fact, more and more studies are being conducted of the Circadian Rhythm and its relation to athletic performance. In many cases, the rhythms have been found to have a significant effect (Klein, 2007). The Circadian Rhythm and its effects are now slowly being considered in design of training regimens and performance assessments. This paper aims to present a clearer understanding of the relationship between the Circadian Rhythm and human activity. Through experimentation, the significance of the Circadian Rhythm will be highlighted. In the end an inference of how to maximize this relationship will be drawn. Materials and Method Section Animal physiology 433 laboratory class designed a lab experiment to study biological rhythms. The study of biological rhythms took place during the winter quarter of 2008. There were eighty-nine students selected to participate in this study. Four types of measurement tests were chosen to study rhythms. These tests included measurements of pulse rate, eye-hand coordination, adding speed, and body temperature. The measurement were collected every two hours during the 24-hour period. Each student had one week to gather their data. While collecting the data, the student was required to disturb their â€Å"normal sleep and awakening time†, meaning that students had to wake up in the middle of the night or interrupt their daily schedule to collect data. The collection data during the rest phase needs to be gathered right away when student wakes up without getting up from the bed. It is recommended that each student divided their rest phase measurement for different nights, instead of taking all measurements in one night. They performed the pulse measurement. There were several ways to measure the pulse rate. One way was to place the index finger on the side of the wrist, just above the wrist bone, and press lightly. The beats were counted for one minute or for 10 seconds and multiplied by six. Another way to measure pulse was by taking the pulse from the artery to the right or left near the Adam’s apple and counting the beats per minute. Students performed the eye-hand coordination test. Using the dominant had, touch the index finger with the thumb and count â€Å"1†, then take the thumb and touch the middle finger and count â€Å"2†. Once the thumb is touching the little finger get to the little finger, count â€Å"4†. Now count by going backward, first touching the ring finger and count â€Å"5†, then the middle finger and count â€Å"6† and to the index finger and count â€Å"7†. Perform these procedures until have reached the count to â€Å"25†. At â€Å"25†, the thumb and the index finger must be touching each other. Try to practice the movement before doing the actual measurement. If a student makes a mistake then is required to start counting over again. Student needs to record how many times it takes to complete the correct count.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Student measured adding speed. For this test, the required material is a table of one digit numbers placed in columns. Using a piece of paper, the student should place it at the bottom of the second row of numbers. As the student moves the paper down to the third row the student needs to add the first and the second row numbers. Move the paper down to the third row and add second and third line. Add only two lines at the same time by continuing to count until added the entire column. Finally record the time that is took to complete this procedure. Use different column for each circadian time period.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Measurement is oral temperature. Student should beging by using a reusable thermometer to measure the temperature. Taking the thermometer and place it under the tongue for one minute. After a minute passes readily read the thermometer by looking at the last black dot, it will show the temperature in Fahrenheit. Finally, rinse the thermometer with soapy water or wipe with rubbing alcohol. Dry it and store in the thermometer case. Results   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The study of circadian rhythms over the 24-hour period has shown the following results. According to Figure 1, the highest heart rate was recorded between 1200-2000 and lowest heart rate was at 400. The maximum heart rate was approximately 78 beats per minute during the hours 1200-2000 or from 1000-2200. The minimum heart rate was at 0400 about 65 beats per minute or between 0200-0600.   The mean heart rate is significantly different between midnight and daytime (P0.05, Turkey’s HSD test).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The highest eye-hand coordination count is at 400 in the morning and lowest at 1200. It takes about 11 sec to perform eye-hand coordination test at 0400 or between hours of 0200-0600. And the minimum is at 1200 (7 sec) or between hours of 0800-2200.The mean eye-hand coordination is significantly differ at 0400 than eye-hand coordination count between noon (Figure 2, P0.05, Turkey’s HSD test).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The maximum number of mistakes is at 0400 (1 number of mistakes) or between 0200-0400. On the other hand, the minimum is from 0600-2400 (between 0.2-0.6 number of mistakes). The mean number of trials with mistakes have differ significantly during the night that during the daytime (Figure 3, P0.05, Turkey’s HSD test). The highest values for adding speed occur at 0400 and lowest value is between   1200-1400 and 2000. Being maximum at 0400 (77 sec) or from 2400-0800 and minimum is between 1200-1400 and 2000 (approximately 53 sec) or between 0600-2400 The mean adding speed is significantly differ at 400 than during the daytime (Figure 4, P0.05, Turkey’s HSD test). The highest body temperature observed between 1400-1800 hours and the lowest at 0400. Maximum at 1400-1800 (97 °F) or 1000-2200 and minimum at 0400 (96 °F ) or 2400-0800. The mean oral temperature at midnight is also significantly lower than temperature between 1400-1800 (Figure 5, P0.05, Turkey’s HSD test). Discussion: In the past, several studies have been conducted to demonstrate the diurnal variations that occur in the heart beat.   One of the main factors that control the heart beat include the two components of the autonomic nervous system, namely, the sympathetic component and the parasympathetic component.   Both these components have opposing actions.   A study conducted by Stein et al (2006) demonstrated that the heart rate variations are very much dependent on the circadian cycle compared to the ultradian cycle.   Stein et al involved about 113 subjects in his study between the ages 48 to 68.   He included about 68 men and 48 women.   One of the main instruments utilized in his study was an overnight polysomnographic ECG, which could help determine the heart rate and record the diurnal variation. In another study conducted by Bonnemeier et al (2003), demonstrated that during vagal stimulation had a significant role over the heart rate.   In turn, the vagus stimulation was controlled by the circadian cycle.   With age, there was a decrease in the vagal stimulation leading to decreased in the parasympathetic activity at night times.   Bonnemeier et al utilized 166 healthy subjects who did not suffer from any cardiac disorder.   About 85 women and 80 men, between the ages of 30 to 55 years formed a part of this study. Several external and internal factors helped to control temperature including circadian factors, menstrual factors, etc.   Sund-Levander et al who conducted several experiments on temperature variation found that the time of the day and then season, had a significant role over temperature.   Recently, it was found that time of the day controlled the temperature from an internal mechanism rather than an external.   Between the 1960’s, 1970’s and the 1980’s, more than 2700 articles have been published the internal role the circadian cycle has over body temperature variation.   Some of the factors that had a role over the circadian cycle included the light and day cycles and the meal timings.   Earlier study conducted by Kelly Greg et al in 2006 demonstrated that the temperature of the body was lowest between 3 am to 6 am and highest between 4 pm to 9 pm.   The difference between these two temperatures was about 1.8 degrees F.   Greg also found that se veral other factors could affect this variation in temperature. Although no current evidence is available to demonstrate that maximum number of human errors occurs during 2 am to 4 am, current literature suggest that the human tendency to make mistakes is higher during the early morning period.   This is because relatively fewer research studies have been conducted in this area.   One of the vital areas in which attention is required by the personnel is the night shifts in the trauma unit of a hospital.   Studies have shown that as these personnel experience a disruption of the circadian cycle, they are bound to make mistakes in the early morning hours.   Fatigue has been one of the causes for these errors.   In the past, 4 major disasters in the World have occurred due to disasters by the personnel during the early morning hours.   Scientists suggest that the human body circadian cycle is tuned in such a way that during the early morning hours, human physical and mental activity is minimized (Duncan, Jha, Bates, 2001). A study was conducted by Edwards et al (2008) to determine the level of accuracy at different times of the day in order to determine the effect on circadian cycle.   The individuals had to aim at a target and reach the center of the target as close as possible.   This task required a great level of eye-hand coordination.   Before the performance of the task, the oral temperature was recorded.   This study demonstrated a close relationship between the oral temperature and performance levels (Edwards et al, 2008).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Thus it can be said that the findings of this study have been consistent with that of the past studies.   The results of this study seem to be very specific and precise, as it points out to specific periods in a 24-hour cycle.   Such data needs to be studied further through advanced studies, and of in consistent results are obtained, could the results of this study be utilized for practical purposes.   Besides, long-term studies need to be performed in individuals with a disturbance in the circadian cycle. References: Bonnemeier H, Richardt G, Potratz J et al (2003). †Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects: differing effects of aging and gender on heart rate variability.† J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, 14(8), 791-799. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12890036?ordinalpos=1itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlusDrugs1 Duncan, B. W., Jha, A.K., Bates, D. W. (2001). â€Å"Chapter 46. Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Medical Errors.† In. Shojania, K. G., Duncan, B. W., McDonald, K. M. et al (Ed). Making Health Care Safer A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices, Rockville: AHRQ. ahrq.gov/Clinic/ptsafety/index.html#toc Edwards, B., Waterhouse, J., Reilly, T. (2008). â€Å"Circadian rhythms and their association with body temperature and time awake when performing a simple task with the dominant and non-dominant hand.† Chronobiol Int., 25(1), 115-32. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18293153?ordinalpos=1itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Kelly, G. (2006). â€Å"Body Temperature Variability (Part 1): A Review of the History of Body Temperature and its Variability Due to Site Selection, Biological Rhythms, Fitness, and Aging.† Alternate Medicine Review, 11(4). 278-293. thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/11/4/278.pdf Stein, P. K., Domitrovich, P. P., Lundequam, E. J. et al (2006). â€Å"Circadian and ultradian rhythms in heart rate variability.† Biomed Tech (Berl), 51(4), 155-158. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17061928?ordinalpos=1itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlusDrugs1 Number of pages: 2 (Double Spaced) [?] Deadline: February 27 7:33 [?] T Number of sources: 5 [?] Style: APA  [?] Urgency:   Ã‚   4 days Time remaining: 1 days 23 hours 48 minutes Status: Order is available Messages: 0 [?] Files: 3 Description: [?] Preferred language style: English(U.S.) Draft Discussion and Literature Cited Sections Dear writer, Now I need to write a discussion section for my paper. You already wrote the introduction section for me, I wrote the material method section, and the result. Can you please help me to write a discussion. It needs to contain the following information: 1. Provides 4-5 general statements that interpret the results of the current study. 2. These general statements are the topic (first) or concluding (last) sentences of the paragraphs. 3. The general statements are expanded upon with support from the current study, including whether or not the current results agree with previously reported results. 4. The general statements are expanded upon with support from the literature. The supporting statements are referenced with Figure numbers ( Figure 1, 2,3,4 or 5) or literature citations that are in one of two forms (Last names of authors, year of publication) or (number from literature cited section). 5. The final paragraph in the Discussion section contains a concluding statement that summarizes the current findings in relation to previous work and a sentence that states whether or not the current findings support or refute the original hypothesis. 6. General: a. Flow of the narrative, i.e. is there a logical organization to the sentences in the text? Is the reader taken on a journey by the author that culminates in the final conclusion? b. The narrative provides the average biological scientist with a general understanding of the results of the current study and their relationship to previous research findings. Literature Cited: 1. Includes at least 5 references, at most one reference is a textbook and 1 is a review article. 2. References are numbered and listed in alphabetical order. 3. All references cited in the text are found in the Literature Cited section. 4. All references cited in the Literature Cited section can be found in the text. The sources must be primary because last time they were not. A primary source articles contain a full research report including all of the details necessary to duplicate a study. A primary source article usually contains the followings sections: an abstract that summarizes the paper, an introduction that contains the rationale for the study, a method section that describes in detail the subjects or participants in the study and the procedure, stimuli and equipment used in the study, a results section that describes what was found and any statistical analyses that were performed, a discussion section that explores the implications of the findings, and a references section that lists the literature cited throughout the paper. Primary source articles are most often found in scientific journals. I will also attach the lecture notes that my teacher gave us on circadian rhythm. You cant use lecture as a primary source, but the pdf file with graph contain some primary sources underneath the graphs that could be used for this paper. The lecture notes explain the details of each graph very well. You can use 2 sources from the pdf file, then one has to be a book, and another 2 primarily articles. Please paraphrase the text and do not use direct quotes as you did for the introduction section. Also use simple language so that the paper will flow. Contact me if you have any questions.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

How Environmental Factors Can Affect the Business Organization Essay

How Environmental Factors Can Affect the Business Organization - Essay Example By 2005, it had over 80 employees and several customers, which ranges from supermarkets, restaurants, cafes, and households. The company will be used as a case study to answer the questions in the subsequent paragraphs. Open system approach to organizations An open approach system to organization implies that an organization interacts with its outside environment, which in turn influences the structure and operations of the organization. The fact that an open system interacts with the outside environment implies that an organization is an open system should always adapt to changes in the environment. For a long time, Icy Foods Ltd. has been operating on informal basis judging, by the way, operations are loosely divided into five departments with no clear-cut framework. Moreover, the company used to accept orders with less or no regard to quality or quantity specifications of the product. This lack of organization explains why the company lacked customers from major supermarket chains . The other apparent misgiving that characterized Icy Foods Ltd. is the lack of clear division of labor and specialization. This fact is inherent in the way the company conducts job rotations (Weiner, 2002). Job rotation is not a good concept because it does not give the employees the chance to gain experience in a given line of duty. The fact that the company did not embrace quality and efficiency in its operations negatively affected its business performance. Before the takeover by Megastores Plc., the company had adopted an organic organization structure in managing the various operations. The management, prior to the takeover, operated an open-door policy. The management was keen on hearing employee’s ideas on new products and operational improvements. There was also a flexible approach to handling employees’ issues such as working hours and leave. After the successful takeover, the management came up with a raft of new changes that were more bureaucratic as oppose d to the organic system that the management had used to all along. The company adopted strict operational procedures that all the workers were compelled to follow to the latter. The new management placed much emphasis on operational efficiency, and work was based on performance. Decisions at the company were made unilaterally by the management without any consultations whatsoever, with the stakeholders. The human-resource department was formed to manage the human-resource issues. This bureaucratic approach to management led to high turnover at the organization. Moreover, it resulted in low motivation levels among the employees (Cassidy & Kreitner, 2009). It is worth noting that bureaucratic approach to management of the organization has one critical advantage, which is an improvement of efficiency in operation and management of the resources of the organization. Since the adoption of the bureaucratic leadership style at the organization, the efficiency at the organization has improv ed by a whopping 35%. How environmental factors can affect the business organization The year, 2005-2010 saw several changes in the business environment that adversely affected the business performance of Icy Foods Ltd. The fact that major supermarket chains dominated the ready foods market drove out of the market the smaller retail outlets from a business.